2013年07月08日

エジプト政変 大統領の失政が招いた軍介入

The Yomiuri Shimbun July 7, 2013
Egypt’s leaders must quickly come to terms to guard regional stability
エジプト政変 大統領の失政が招いた軍介入(7月6日付・読売社説)

Mohammed Morsi, who became Egypt’s first democratically elected president one year ago, has been outsted in a de facto coup by the military.
 エジプトで1年前に史上初めて民主的に選ばれたモルシ大統領が、軍による事実上のクーデターで、失脚した。

The country’s transition to democratic rule, which was championed in the wake of a dictatorship, is now facing a critical test. Tensions between the military and Morsi supporters have been rising, inciting concern that a wave of clashes between the two forces could aggravate the turmoil.
 独裁体制の崩壊後、曲がりなりにも前進してきた民主化路線が、重大な危機に直面している。軍とモルシ支持勢力との緊張は高まっており、両者の衝突で混迷が深まることが懸念される。

The military deposed Morsi as president and placed him under arrest, claiming the country was on the verge of a security crisis. Adly Mansour, the supreme justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, has been sworn in as interim president until a new leader is elected.
 軍は、「国の安全保障が危機に瀕(ひん)している」としてモルシ大統領を解任し、拘束した。マンスール最高憲法裁判所長官を暫定大統領とし、暫定政府を構成する。

The military has suspended the Islamist-drafted Constitution and announced a plan to call a presidential election in the near future, but there has been no indication the chaos will subside.
 憲法を停止し、大統領選を早期に実施すると発表したが、事態収拾の道筋は見えていない。

The coup was triggered by a string of massive demonstrations calling for Morsi’s resignation on the anniversary of his first year in office. Since then, the square in central Cairo has been swamped with protesters every day. The scale of demonstrations is reminiscent of those that led to the toppling of the long-standing regime led by President Hosni Mubarak.
 今回のクーデターのきっかけは、大統領就任1周年にあたって、辞任を求める大規模デモが発生したことだ。カイロ中心部の広場は連日デモ隊で埋まり、2011年2月にムバラク政権を打倒したデモをほうふつとさせた。

Repeated clashes beween pro- and anti-Morsi elements have claimed lives in various parts of the country.
 全国各地で反大統領派と大統領支持派が衝突し、死者も出た。

Policy gaffes sparked crisis

The leading factor behind the rebellion was a series of policy blunders by Morsi.
 混乱を招いた最大の要因は、モルシ氏が失政を重ねたことだ。

Morsi was elected with a campaign pledge to improve Egyptians’ livelihoods, but food prices have been skyrocketing and fuel shortages have reached a dire level.
 「生活の改善」を公約して当選したが、食料品の価格は高騰し、燃料不足が深刻化している。

Additionally, public safety has deteriorated due to an increase in heinous crimes. The number of international tourists and the amount of foreign investment have dropped with no sign of recovery.
 凶悪犯罪の増加で治安が悪化し、外国からの観光客や投資も落ち込んだままだ。

Morsi unilaterally issued a decree to bolster the power and authority of the president. He pushed through the enactment of a heavily Islamic Constitution in line with the policy of the Muslim Brotherhood, from which Morsi hails. His political stance has drawn a backlash from secular and liberal forces.
 モルシ氏は、大統領権限の強化を一方的に宣言した。出身母体のイスラム主義組織「ムスリム同胞団」の方針通りイスラム色の濃い憲法の制定を強引に進めた。こうした政治姿勢が世俗・リベラル派から反発をかった。

Widespread political unrest and a rapid expansion of anti- government movements, it may be said, gave the military a pretense for political intervention.
 こうした政情不安と反政府運動の急激な拡大が、軍に政治介入の口実を与えたと言える。

The military-led interim government will be challenged over its ability to restore stability and resume a democratically oriented process for reconstuction of the country.
 軍主導の暫定統治の課題は安定を回復し、民主化を柱とする国家再建を再開できるかどうかだ。

Calm reconciliation needed

The military has been trying to quell protests by force, including detaining many leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Brotherhood, for its part, has called for supporters to hold rallies across the nation. It is feared such a defiant stance could further aggravate the situation.
 軍は、同胞団幹部を多数拘束するなど、力で抑え込もうとしている。同胞団は支持者に全土でデモを呼びかけ、抵抗する構えだ。これでは事態は一層悪化しよう。

Europe, the United States and Japan, which have backed the democratization of Egypt, expressed concern about the military’s dismissal of Morsi while avoiding direct criticism of the armed forces and calling for a prompt return to civilian control.
 エジプトの民主化を支援してきた欧米や日本は、軍による大統領解任に懸念を表明しつつも、軍を強く非難することは避け、民政への早期復帰を求めている。

To move forward, the military and the Brotherhood must come to the negotiating table and realize national reconciliation as soon as possible.
 軍と同胞団が、対話のテーブルにつき、一刻も早く、国民的な和解を実現することが必要だ。

In Tunisia and Libya, which are both Egypt’s neighbors, the road to democracy was rocky following the collapse of despotic rule. Syria is still suffering from a civil war.
 周辺国のチュニジア、リビアでは、独裁崩壊後の民主化が難航し、シリアでも内戦が続く。

To ensure regional stability, it is indispensable for Egypt, a major power in the area, to swiftly resolve the internal chaos and continue on the path toward democracy.
地域大国エジプトが、動揺を早期に収拾し民主化の道を歩むことは、地域の安定のために欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 6, 2013)
(2013年7月6日01時29分 読売新聞)
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